ANNUAL REPORT OF COOPERATIVE REGIONAL PROJECTS
Supported by Allocations of the Regional Research Fund, Hatch Act
January 1 to December 31, 1996
PROJECT: NE-183 Multidisciplinary
Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars, New Jersey
COOPERATING AGENCIES AND PRINCIPAL LEADERS
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station
Winfred P. Cowgill, Jr.*
Department of Agricultural and Resource Management Agents
Rutgers Cooperative Extension
Flemington, NJ 08822
Joe Goffreda Dean Polk
Associate Professor Associate Professor
Department of Plant Science Department of Agricultural and
Rutgers, the State University Resource Management Agents
New Brunswick, NJ Rutgers Cooperative Extension
Cream Ridge, NJ
William Tietjen Robert Belding
Assistant Professor Extension Specialist in Pomolgy
Department of Agricultural Agents Department of Plant Science
Rutgers Cooperative Extension Rutgers, the State University
Belvidere, NJ New Brunswick, NJ
PROGRESS OF THE WORK AND PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS:
The 1995 NE-183 Horticulture Planting at Rutgers,
the State University was established at the Rutgers Snyder Research
and Extension Farm, Pittstown NJ. The planting was maintained
as per protocols established by the Horticulture Sub-committee
at the Annual Meeting of October 1995. Tree growth was excellent
in 1996, and during their second-leaf, most trees had attained
heights of three meters and TCSA of 4-11 cm.
The planting was established 1995 as per local horticultural
recommendations. The ground was subsoiled prior to planting and
small raised beds were established. A support system was installed
consisting of a single galvanized pole for each tree with a high
tensile wire across the top at 3 meters. Wood poles were placed
every 50 feet to support the galvanized poles. A second wire was
established at approximately 1.5 meters. Hard fescue sod middles
were established and herbicide strips maintained. Drip irrigation
was established shortly after planting in 1995 and used biweekly
during the 1995 growing season, resulting in excellent growth.
In 1996 no irrigation was necessary.
In 1996 trees were trained during the dormant season.
Leaders were left unheaded but trained to the poles with a max
No dormant pruning was done. Leaders were singled out in June
and a few selective pruning cuts of 'nuisance' branches were done
at the same time. Bending and tying down of scaffold branches
was also performed as necessary in June to maintain desirable
tree structure. The trees had some flowers but set only a few
fruit. Several apples were left on many precocious trees to get
an early sneak-preview of the fruit. Fruit counts were recorded
per tree but no other fruit quality data was taken.
The block was under a minimal IPM spray schedule
as determined by weekly scouting. There were no unusual pest and
disease problems observed with the exception of a late season
( late august) infestation of potato leaf hopper which hit the
entire block mottling the leaves. Terminal buds were set and growth
had ceased so no pesticide was applied.
NE-183 NJ State Report Cont.
All data has been collected for 1996 with the exception
of flower clusters per tree during bloom. Inadvertently the technician
recorded the date and type of bloom rather then cluster numbers.
Leaf samples were collected for analysis. Data will be forwarded
to the project statistician for analysis.
A World Wide Web home page for the NE-183 project
<http://orchard.uvm.edu/ne183/> was established on the
Virtual orchard site <http://orchard.uvm.edu/> in collaboration
with Jon Clements of the University of Vermont. The goal is to
facilitate communication among project members and to disseminate
information about the new apple cultivars included in the 1995
planting to interested growers; researchers; industry, extension,
government personnel; and the general public. A printed sample
of the web pages is included in Vermontís state report.
USEFULNESS OF FINDINGS
Multidisciplinary evaluation of new apple cultivars
will provide critical information to insure the success of North
American apple growers in what has rapidly become a very competitive,
global fruit market. Armed with the information generated by this
project, orchardists will be more confident about planting, growing,
and selling the new apple cultivars that have a market niche in
the New York metropolitan region as we approach the year 2000.
WORK PLANNED FOR NEXT YEAR:
Tree pruning, training, general maintenance and data
collection will continue to be performed as per the protocols
developed by the Horticulture subcommittee. Fruit buds are present
and a small crop of apples should be available for testing 1997.
Some initial data and general impressions about the relative fruit
quality and horticultural performance of these new apple cultivars
will be generated.
NE-183 World Wide Web Internet pages will be expanded
to allow for better collaboration among cooperators, and to include
pictures and descriptions of the planted cultivars.
PUBLICATIONS ISSUED OR MANUSCRIPTS APPROVED DURING
Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. ìEuropean Fruit Trends/International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association Summer Tour.î Proceedings of the 137th Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Fruit News, State Horticulture. Assoc. of PA. 76(4)77.
Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. ìIntegrated Fruit Production in Europe.î Horticultural New, NJ State Horticulture. Soc. 76(1)3-6.
Cowgill, W.P., Jr.; Clements, J. 1995. The Virtual Apple Orchard: A New Medium for Dissemination of Apple Information. Proceedings. 71st Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf., November 16-17, 1995. Winchester, Virginia.
Tietjen, W. H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr., K.S. Petersen, D.F. Polk, G. Slifer. 1995. ìThe Effect of Calcium Sprays on Incidence of ëMystery Spotí on Enterprise Apple.î Proceedings 71st Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf.
Cowgill, W.P., Jr., J. Slifer, 1995. ìApple Growth Regulator Studies in NJ-1995.î Proc. 71st Cumberland Shenanadoah Fruit Workers Conf., November 16-17, 1995. Winchester, Virginia
VanVranken, R.W., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. ìUtilizing Electronic Mail List Discussion Groups on the Internet to Enhance Communication in Specific Commodity Groups.î HortTechnology, Vol6(4) 318-324.
Cowgill, W.P., Jr., M.H. Maletta, W.H. Tietjen, J. Compton, D. Polk, J.F. Goffreda. 1995. ìPreliminary Performance of Six Scab-resistant Apple Cultivars in Northwestern New Jersey.î Abs., HortScience, Vol 30(4) 843
Cowgill, W.P., Jr. 1995. ìThe Tree Fruit Industry in New Jersey.î Compact Fruit Tree, Vol. 28, Fruit Growing Regions