Supported by Allocations of the Regional Research Fund, Hatch Act

January 1 to December 31, 1996

PROJECT: NE-183 Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars, New Jersey


New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station

Winfred P. Cowgill, Jr.*


Department of Agricultural and Resource Management Agents

Rutgers Cooperative Extension

Flemington, NJ 08822

Joe Goffreda Dean Polk

Associate Professor Associate Professor

Department of Plant Science Department of Agricultural and

Rutgers, the State University Resource Management Agents

New Brunswick, NJ Rutgers Cooperative Extension

Cream Ridge, NJ

William Tietjen Robert Belding

Assistant Professor Extension Specialist in Pomolgy

Department of Agricultural Agents Department of Plant Science

Rutgers Cooperative Extension Rutgers, the State University

Belvidere, NJ New Brunswick, NJ


The 1995 NE-183 Horticulture Planting at Rutgers, the State University was established at the Rutgers Snyder Research and Extension Farm, Pittstown NJ. The planting was maintained as per protocols established by the Horticulture Sub-committee at the Annual Meeting of October 1995. Tree growth was excellent in 1996, and during their second-leaf, most trees had attained heights of three meters and TCSA of 4-11 cm.

The planting was established 1995 as per local horticultural recommendations. The ground was subsoiled prior to planting and small raised beds were established. A support system was installed consisting of a single galvanized pole for each tree with a high tensile wire across the top at 3 meters. Wood poles were placed every 50 feet to support the galvanized poles. A second wire was established at approximately 1.5 meters. Hard fescue sod middles were established and herbicide strips maintained. Drip irrigation was established shortly after planting in 1995 and used biweekly during the 1995 growing season, resulting in excellent growth. In 1996 no irrigation was necessary.

In 1996 trees were trained during the dormant season. Leaders were left unheaded but trained to the poles with a max tapener. No dormant pruning was done. Leaders were singled out in June and a few selective pruning cuts of 'nuisance' branches were done at the same time. Bending and tying down of scaffold branches was also performed as necessary in June to maintain desirable tree structure. The trees had some flowers but set only a few fruit. Several apples were left on many precocious trees to get an early sneak-preview of the fruit. Fruit counts were recorded per tree but no other fruit quality data was taken.

The block was under a minimal IPM spray schedule as determined by weekly scouting. There were no unusual pest and disease problems observed with the exception of a late season ( late august) infestation of potato leaf hopper which hit the entire block mottling the leaves. Terminal buds were set and growth had ceased so no pesticide was applied.

NE-183 NJ State Report Cont.

Page 2

All data has been collected for 1996 with the exception of flower clusters per tree during bloom. Inadvertently the technician recorded the date and type of bloom rather then cluster numbers. Leaf samples were collected for analysis. Data will be forwarded to the project statistician for analysis.

A World Wide Web home page for the NE-183 project <> was established on the Virtual orchard site <> in collaboration with Jon Clements of the University of Vermont. The goal is to facilitate communication among project members and to disseminate information about the new apple cultivars included in the 1995 planting to interested growers; researchers; industry, extension, government personnel; and the general public. A printed sample of the web pages is included in Vermontís state report.


Multidisciplinary evaluation of new apple cultivars will provide critical information to insure the success of North American apple growers in what has rapidly become a very competitive, global fruit market. Armed with the information generated by this project, orchardists will be more confident about planting, growing, and selling the new apple cultivars that have a market niche in the New York metropolitan region as we approach the year 2000.


Tree pruning, training, general maintenance and data collection will continue to be performed as per the protocols developed by the Horticulture subcommittee. Fruit buds are present and a small crop of apples should be available for testing 1997. Some initial data and general impressions about the relative fruit quality and horticultural performance of these new apple cultivars will be generated.

NE-183 World Wide Web Internet pages will be expanded to allow for better collaboration among cooperators, and to include pictures and descriptions of the planted cultivars.


Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. ìEuropean Fruit Trends/International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association Summer Tour.î Proceedings of the 137th Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Fruit News, State Horticulture. Assoc. of PA. 76(4)77.

Tietjen, W.H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. ìIntegrated Fruit Production in Europe.î Horticultural New, NJ State Horticulture. Soc. 76(1)3-6.

Cowgill, W.P., Jr.; Clements, J. 1995. The Virtual Apple Orchard: A New Medium for Dissemination of Apple Information. Proceedings. 71st Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf., November 16-17, 1995. Winchester, Virginia.

Tietjen, W. H., W.P. Cowgill, Jr., K.S. Petersen, D.F. Polk, G. Slifer. 1995. ìThe Effect of Calcium Sprays on Incidence of ëMystery Spotí on Enterprise Apple.î Proceedings 71st Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conf.

Cowgill, W.P., Jr., J. Slifer, 1995. ìApple Growth Regulator Studies in NJ-1995.î Proc. 71st Cumberland Shenanadoah Fruit Workers Conf., November 16-17, 1995. Winchester, Virginia

VanVranken, R.W., W.P. Cowgill, Jr. 1996. ìUtilizing Electronic Mail List Discussion Groups on the Internet to Enhance Communication in Specific Commodity Groups.î HortTechnology, Vol6(4) 318-324.

Cowgill, W.P., Jr., M.H. Maletta, W.H. Tietjen, J. Compton, D. Polk, J.F. Goffreda. 1995. ìPreliminary Performance of Six Scab-resistant Apple Cultivars in Northwestern New Jersey.î Abs., HortScience, Vol 30(4) 843

Cowgill, W.P., Jr. 1995. ìThe Tree Fruit Industry in New Jersey.î Compact Fruit Tree, Vol. 28, Fruit Growing Regions