MEETING OF THE NE-183 APPLE CULTIVAR EVALUATION TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
November 11, 1997
Rm 409 UA CCE, Fayetteville, Arkansas
The 1997 annual meeting of the NE-183 Apple Cultivar Evaluation Technical
Committee was called to order by Rob Crassweller at 8:15 am. Attending the
meeting were Rob Crassweller (PA) - Chair, C. Rom (AR) - Vice-Chair, J.
Cline - Secretary (ON), A. Allen (AR), Don Johnson (AR), Ron McNew (AR),
Stephen S. Miller (WV), Jon Clements (VT), M. Elena Garcia (VT), Alan Jones
(MI), Dave Rosenburger (NY), Bob Seem (NY), Bruce Barritt (WA), Kieth Yoder
(VA), Anita Azarenko (OR), Robert Belding (NJ), Duane Greene (MA), Teryl
Roper (WI), Peter Hirst (IN), Charlie Embree (NS), Cecil Stushnoff (CO)
Dr. Stephen Myer, Horticulture Dept. Chair, University of Urkansas, Fayetteville,
welcomed the group to the University of Arkansas.
1. Agenda. The agenda for the meeting was adopted by consensus.
2. Minutes of the 1996 meeting. A motion was made, seconded and passed
to accept the 1996 minutes as printed.
3. Membership and Participation List. R. Crassweller is updating the
current member and cooperator list, e-mail and mailing addresses.
4. Comments by R. Seem, Administrative Advisor.
The project will terminate September 1999. The group needs to make a
request to submit a rewrite in order to have the project renewed. Rewrite
has to be completed by Feb. 1999. Since this process takes 1 year, the group
should submit the revision by Feb. 1998. The group needs to re-evaluate
objectives and look at results obtained to date. There are materials available
to guide the rewrite committee.
In their current re-write, the NE-103 group identified the post-harvest
evaluation of new apple cultivars as a focal point for research. Since this
area is of mutual interest to both the NE-103 and NE-183 groups, Dr. Seem
encouraged the formation of a subcommittee whose purpose, in part, would
be to discuss potential collaboration with the NE-103.
In the 4th annual report (1998), the group needs to indicate accomplishments
(please note that '1997' should be considered the 3rd year of this project).
The "Request to Rewrite" Subcommittee Members are: Rob Crassweller
and Duane Greene (Horticulturalists), Dick Straub (entomologist), Don Johnson
(AR). No pathologist was selected, however, Keith Yoder agreed to assist
while at the meetings in AR. The "Request to Rewrite" should include
the following headings. a)Justification b) Objectives c) Expected Outcomes
d) Expected Resources (PY etc.); and e) Significant Accomplishments.. Total
length should not exceed three pages.
It was suggested that a subcommittee be formed to write the critical
review. As this is part of the revision, this needs to be completed by Feb.
1999. Bob Seem will put together a time-line for deadlines. David Rosenburger
and Curt Rom will take on this responsibilities.
4. Comments by Dr. Cecil Stushnoff, CSREES representative
There may be some new money that might be of interest to this group for
testing new cultivars. It has been suggested that $50M might be infused
into plant breeding programs.
5. Plantings and Committee Reports
5.1 Horticulture Subcommittee Report. Report given by B. Belding (NJ)
It was noted that several of the cultivars in the 1995 planting have
be renamed. Cooperators were encouraged to change their listing of names
as follows: 1) NY429 to Fortune; 2) Fuji Nagafu#2-to Fuji BC Type 2, 3)
Carousel to Cameo, 4) BC 8M-15-10 to Creston
Protocol for tree training remains unchanged (please see the 1996 report).
There was some discussion by D. Greene about removing fruit on axillary
buds since fruit borne on these buds tend to be inferior in quality. The
intention is to set fruit on spurs and in some cases terminals, but local
option will prevail in situations where fruit on axillary buds is necessary.
The recommendation was made to space fruit 15-20cm on older wood, and
be removed on 1-yr-old wood, unless a crop on 1-yr-old wood is required.
This motion was seconded and passed.
Foliar recommendations for N, B and Zn should be based on local recommendations.
A recommendation was made by D. Greene to select 3 representative limbs at least 5 cm in circumference per tree and count the number of flower clusters on each limb. Where participants do not have time for this detailed measurement, a bloom rating system using the follow numeric scale is acceptable:
0 = no blossoms
3 = enough flowers to carry a full crop load
5 = snowball bloom
Tree height and spread measurements in 2 directions should begin after
growing seasons 5 (1999), 8 (2002) , and 10 (2004).
Bloom and harvest dates should be recorded by calendar date as well as
by julian day (see the Horticulture Subcommittee protocol sent by Bob Belding
to the NE183 listserve Nov 19, 1997)
Annual leaf samples from each tree replicates from Braeburn/M.9 and Golden
Delicious/M.9 should be taken in August and sent to the Penn. State Labs.
Consult future Horticultural Subcommittee Protocols for further detail.
A reminder should be sent in August by the Chair to take this information.
5.2 D. Pest Management Subcommittee -Presentation made by D. Johnson.
D. Johnson is developing protocols and has requested from those participating
in Pest Plantings to send a copy of their local spray schedules to D. Johnson
(AR) by January 15th 1998. Those with Horticulture Plantings are encouraged
to note any specific disease problems and to forward these and their spray
schedule to D. Johnson as well.
5.3 Economic Subcommittee - not report was given.
5.4 Data Management. R. McNew (AR) presented a report.
Data from 1995
Each cv. has been code (1-25; see previous postings). Tree inventory
data from 1995 and 1996 was presented. Sensu and Pioneer Mac was not included
in the Pest Management Plantings. Mean data from each site which submitted
data was presented. Data include TCA, tree height, spread, no. flower clusters,
no. fruit per tree, total yield per tree, average fruit weight. The only
variable common among all site was TCA. Tree growth, height, spread were
more closely related to location than cultivar or cv*location interaction.
The most precocious cvs. (based on no flower clusters) were 20,15,21,3,2,13,24.
Least precocious were 14,17,16,18,6.
Prior to submitting data, ensure that it is PROOFED carefully. Include
in detail (units, description) of all data columns. R. McNew prefers PC-based
R. McNew agreed to send a copy of the statistical analysis to each participant
of the complete NE-183 data set for each cultivar*location, in graphic and
There was some discussion about the need to have a project chairperson
in order to summarize the data that R. McNew has generated. D. Greene and
R. Crassweller will prepare this for the 1998 meeting.
Deadline for submitting data is no later than February 1, 1998. R.
Crassweller will send a reminder.
5.5 Fruit Quality Subcommittee. Stephen Miller distributed and presented the "NE-183 Fruit Quality Evaluation Protocol - 1997".
Note the change to Item 1.
"Fruit weight. Report the individual weight of a composite of fruits
to the nearest gram." changes to: "Fruit weight. Report the composite
weight of fruit to the nearest gram."
Data collected under this protocol should be forwarded to R. McNew with
the general tree growth and yield data set.
Any changes in this subcommittee's protocol will be communicated by S.
A need was expressed by D. Green to establish sensory testing of each
of the cultivars in order to evaluate the organoleptic properties of these
cvs. The Fruit Quality Subcommitee will be charged with establishing
criteria for evaluating the organoleptic and consumer acceptance of these
5.6 Photography - no report was given.
Individuals with photographs/slides please send originals to S. Brown
who will then select representative samples for archiving on photo-cd. Copies
of the photo-cd can then be made and distributed, and copied to the NE-183
Web Site (J. Clements). Depending on the total cost, B. Seem may be able
to cover the cost of this initiative.
6. 1999 Planting - D. Greene gave a report.
Our second trial will be planted in 1999. Trees were August budded in
1997 by Wafler Nursery in Wolcott, NY. There are 27 confirmed plantings
containing a total of 120 trees (24 cultivars replicated 5 times). Pest
Management planting will contain 25 trees because of the addition of Rogers
McIntosh. Cultivars include Ambrosia, BC 8S-4-33, BC 8S-26-50, BC 8S-27-51,
Coop 25, Coop 29, Coop 39, CQR 10QT17, CQR 12-750, Delbush, Hampshire, Jubilee
Fuji, Pinova, MN 1824, NJ90, NJ 109, NY 79507-72, NY75907-49, NY 65707-19,
Pink Lady, Runkel, Autumn Gold, Gibson Golden Delicious, Rogers McIntosh.
7. Collaboration with Nursery Consortium(s) - Rob Crassweller.
Nurseries are becoming increasingly protective of new cultivars. They pay the high costs to import the cvs. into the USA and when these are planted at research station across North America, there is genuine concern that the material may be illegally propagated. B. Barritt suggests the Chair of NE-183 group be proactive and write to CWNII to discuss our interest in working with them. This letter would highlight what the NE-183 could do for the nursery consortium and what they could do for us. R. Crassweller, C. Rom and J. Cline, will compile this letter.
8. NE-183 Web Site - John Clements.
John encouraged that, where possible, the NE-183 Web Site should hold electronic copies of project protocols, new planting details, cultivar pictures and descriptions. Anybody that has ideas or who can contribute financially should contact J. Clements.
9. 1998 Meeting Site - Hosts
The consensus of the group was to piggy-back our meetings with NC-140 in 1998. The NE-183 meetings could meet in Portland or Corvallis, independent of NC-140 if they chose to meet elsewhere (ie., Hood River). A. Azarenko (OR) will serve as the local conference coordinator and contact person.
NE-183 1998 - Portland or Corvallis, Oregon - Curt Rom (Chair), J. Cline (Vice Chair)
NE-183 1999 - Bigglerville, PA - J. Cline (Chair), Teryl Roper (Vice Chair)
NE-183 2000 - ?
It was suggested that we fly in on a Saturday, take Sunday off, start
meetings on Monday morning.
NC-140 Meetings are tentatively schedule for Hood River, Oregon in 1998.
NC-140 Meetings are planned for California in 1999.
10. Nominations for Secretary. Teryl Roper volunteered and was acclaimed.
11. State Reports
State report were distributed and presented by (these notes do not reflect
our complete discussion):
Wisconsin - Teryl Roper
- Some cvs. such as Braeburn, Enterprise, and Fuji will be difficult to mature in WI
- Future work involves 15N to monitor the movement of N in these new cvs.
- Ginger Gold can tolerate temps of -35 degrees
West Virginia - Steve Miller
- fireblight has caused significant tree mortality
- Arlet, Cameo, Fuji, Sansa, Suncrisp and Honeycrisp were rated as good-excellent
in terms of fruit quality.
Washington - Bruce Barritt,
- Galasupreme fruit are very flat, atypical or the shape often observed
University of Vermont - M. Elena Garcia
- Sansa is a weak cv. in VT
Virginia - Keith Yoder
- Trees are growing well
- rainfall marginal in 1997
- all trees fruited except Golden Supreme
- Goldrush susceptible to Powdery mildew and rust
- Braeburn doesn't show much sooty blotch or fly speck.
Pennsylvania - R. Crassweller
- NY75414 - not preforming well
- Honeycrisp prone to heat-stress symptoms
- apparently susceptible to leaf hoppers.
- Goldrush, Pristine, Suncrisp were very productive.
- Had 3 wk extended bloom and cool spring. Had a high proportion of fruit on (1 yr old) axillary buds
- Ginger Gold has very wide bloom window (May 1 - 24 May), making it
perhaps more prone to Fireblight
Oregon - A. Azarenka
- NY75414 and Sansa - low yield
- Goldrush lenticels infected by an unidentified pathogen
- Goldrush, Suncrisp, Ginger Gold very productive.
New York - D. Rosenburger, S. Brown
- Sunrise apparently susceptible to blister spot.
- Enterprise susceptible to Plum Curculio causing large 'warts'
- Ginger Gold susceptible to Powdery Mildew and extremely susc. to fireblight
- Senshu has thick and unattractive stems. Apparently prone to stem-end cracking.
- Honeycrisp apparently prone to leaf-hopper damage
- Honeycrisp least productive cv. in D. Rosenberger's NYD planting.
- Pristine appears to have long shelf life
- Ginger Gold very susc. to FB, perhaps worse than Gala
New Jersey - Bob Belding
- Goldrush and Suncrisp are most productive
- G. Supreme, Senshu, Shizuka Honeycrisp and Braeburn prone to mites
- Orin prone to lenticel spotting
- Sansa weak trees
Michigan - Alan Jones
- No fungicides applied till July 2.
- Orin most susc. to scab
- Galasupreme and Honeycrisp had low suscept. to scab
Massachusetts - D. Greene
- Golden Supreme least precocious
- Braeburn most precocious
- 5 to 7 days later than 'normal'
- Ginger Gold, NY429, Suncrisp fruit size were large
- Starch hydrolysis in Ginger Gold may not be a good indicator of maturity
- Ginger Gold has a narrow harvest window
- Galasupreme was the flattest apple.
- Cameo, Goldrush, Shizuka, Suncrisp were most productive in 1997
- Sansa, Shizuka, Honeycrisp, Cameo, Yataka, Golden Supreme, and Suncrisp
were rated good to excellent in fruit quality.
Arkansas - Curt Rom, Don Johnson
- Suncrisp blooms 1 month after Braeburn and has a narrow bloom window
- Suncrisp excellent fruit quality
- High pest pressures from Cedar Apple Rust and Fireblight
- C. Rom breeding for late (Oct-Nov) maturing apples.
- Arlet, Sunrise susceptible to Plum Curculio
- Codling moth a problem in some late maturing cvs. (see report).
a) D. Greene noted that Dr. Cecil Stushnoff developed Suncrisp
- Suncrisp is a cross between Honeygold and Macoun (cold hardiness parents)
b) The "Request to Rewrite" will meet the evening of Nov. 11,
c) B. Barritt reported on his recent trip to Nagano, Japan. There are
10 apple breeders in Japan. Each produce approx. 1000 selections per year.
Tendency to name/release sweet apples. Most apples are too sweet for the
likings of N. Americans. He requested material be sent to Prosser, however,
this won't likely happen any time soon.
With no further business, the committee adjourned its annual meeting
at 5:10 pm.
John A. Cline
Secretary, NE-183 1997.